Since 2006, the Social Change Model (SCM) has been widely used in higher education as a model of socially responsible leadership particularly focused on social change. Quantitative studies have largely used the Socially Responsible Leadership Survey (SRLS) with a large body of work from the Multi-institutional Study of Leadership (MSL). Qualitative studies also examine the development of the SCM within distinct groups of students. This searchable database is aimed at helping researchers and program developers intentionally examine existing findings for research and practice.

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If you know of other studies not included in the database, please contact Susan Komives at



Leadership for a Better World provides an approachable introduction to the Social Change Model of Leadership Development (SCM), giving students a real-world context through which to explore the seven C's of leadership for social change as well as a approaches to socially responsible leadership. From individual, group, and community values through the mechanisms of societal change itself, this book provides fundamental coverage of this increasingly vital topic. Action items, reflection, and discussion questions throughout encourage students to think about how these concepts apply in their own lives. The Facilitator's Guide includes a wealth of activities, assignments, discussions, and supplementary resources to enrich the learning experience whether in class or in the co-curriculum. This new second edition includes student self-assessment rubrics for each element of the model and new discussion on the critical roles of leadership self-efficacy, social perspective, and social justice perspectives. Content is enriched with research on how this approach to leadership is developed, and two new chapters situate the model in a broader understanding of leadership and in applications of the model.


The Social Change Model is the most widely-used leadership model for college students, and has shaped college leadership curricula at schools throughout the U.S. and other countries including a translation in Chinese. This book provides a comprehensive exploration of the model, with a practical, relevant approach to real-world issues.

  • Explore the many facets of social change and leadership
  • Navigate group dynamics surrounding controversy, collaboration, and purpose
  • Discover the meaning of citizenship and your commitment to the greater good
  • Become an agent of change through one of the many routes to a common goal


The SCM is backed by 15 years of research, and continues to be informed by ongoing investigation into the interventions and environments that create positive leadership development outcomes. Leadership for a Better World provides a thorough, well-rounded tour of the Social Change Model, with guidance on application to real-world issues.



This book is designed to provide leadership educators with a wealth of classroom and workshop activities, discussion and reflection questions, assignment suggestions, and additional resources such as video clips and supplementary readings. It also includes several case studies for students to consider the implications of applying all eight elements of the Social Change Model in a variety of contexts.

The Social Change Model of Leadership Development- upon which the book is based- was designed by well-known leadership educators and received wide acclaim and use. The validity of this model has been established through a number of research studies including the Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership.


  • Written by leading experts and developers of the Social Change Model who often present and consult on the topic
  • Helps curricular and co-curricular leadership educators teach the Social Change Model through individual and group activities, reflection questions, and discussion questions.
  • Walks course or workshop facilitators through the entire process of teaching the content and facilitating and debriefing activities


If you're a leadership educator of high school, undergraduate, or graduate school students, The Social Change Model: Facilitating Leadership Development is indispensable reading.


A Social Change Model of Leadership Development: Guidebook is the seminal work on the Social Change Model written by the Higher Education Research Institute, University of California in 1996.